Active Dry Yeast For 1 ounce active dry yeast, substitute ¾ ounce instant yeast.
All-purpose Flour Sift together equal parts of bread and cake flour.
Almond meal/ flour Blitz raw or blanched almonds till finely ground.  Be careful to stop before it breaks down into almond butter.
Baking powder ¼ tsp of baking soda + ½ tsp of cream of tartar + ¼ tsp cornstarch is equal to 1 teaspoon of Baking Powder.
Bread Crumbs For a cup of bread crumbs substitute with 1 cup of crushed crackers or 1 cup of crushed corn flakes or 1 cup of Crushed potato chips.
Bread flour  1 cup All purpose flour + 1 tablespoon of Gluten flour.
Butter  1 cup butter = 1 cup applesauce1 cup butter = ¾ cup avacado (this is best used in chocolatey baking)

1 cup butter = ¾ cup beet puree (this works well in rich cakes, red velvet cakes)

1 cup butter = ¾ cup pumpkin puree (works best for spiced baked goods)

1 cup butter = 1 cup coconut oil

1 cup butter =  ½ cup banana or ½ cup pear puree or ½ cup peach puree

1 cup butter = 1 cup Greek Yogurt (works well on muffins and breads)

1 cup butter =  ½ cup coconut milk (best for cookies)

Butter (Reduce quantity in recipe)  

To reduce the quantity of butter in a recipe add some ground chia seed.

If the recipe calls for 1 cup butter, use ½ cup butter and 1 avocado.

If the recipe calls for 1 cup butter, use ½ cup butter and ½ cup Greek yogurt.

Butter to Olive oil ¾ cup of Olive oil can be replaced for a cup of Butter.

1 tsp butter / Margarine = ¾ tsp olive oil

1 tbsp butter = 2 ¼ tsp Olive oil

2 tbsp butter = 1 ½ tbsp Olive oil

¼ cup butter = 3 tbsp Olive oil

½ cup butter = ¼ cup + 2 tbsp Olive oil

⅔ cup butter = ½ cup Olive oil

¾ cup butter = ½ cup + 1 tbsp olive oil.

1 cup butter = ¾ cup oil

Butter (Unsalted) If the recipe calls for unsalted butter, you can substitute it for salted butter.  But remember to reduce the salt by ¼ tsp.
Buttermilk Add 1 tablespoon + t teaspoon of lemon juice or vinegar to 2 cups of milk to get 2 cups of buttermilk.


Mix ¼ cup milk and ¾ cup plain yogurt to get a cup of thick buttermilk.


Stir together 1 cup milk with 1 ¾ teaspoon of cream of tartar to get 1 cup of buttermilk.


1 cup milk + 1 tbsp or Lemon juice or vinegar = 1 cup Buttermilk  (let this mixture sit in room temperature for 10 to 20 minutes or until thick and slightly curdled)

Cake flour 1 cup All purpose flour with 2 tablespoons of cornstarch.


1 cup minus 2 tbsp of All-purpose flour  =  1 cup cake flour.

Chocolate 3 tbsp Baking cocoa + 1 tbsp Shortening = 1 ounce Chocolate

You can substitute 1 tbsp Vegetable Oil for Shortening

Chocolate (semi sweet) 3 tbsp Unsweetened cocoa powder + 3 tbsp sugar + 1 tbsp Butter = 1 Ounce Semi-sweet chocolate.

You can substitute the butter with 1 tbsp of Vegetable shortening or 1 tbsp of Vegetable Oil.

Coconut Grates (Fresh) Add a little milk or warm water  to the unsweetened Desiccated coconut and use in place of fresh grated coconut.


Sprinkle some water on  the unsweetened Desiccated coconut and steam for about 5 to 10 minutes and use in place of fresh coconut.

Coconut Milk cup of heavy cream can be substituted for 1 cup of coconut milk.


1 cup of evaporated milk can be substituted for 1 cup of coconut milk.


Equal amount of low-fat cream cheese and skimmed milk can be substituted for coconut milk.

Cornstarch 2 tbsp of All-purpose flour = 1 tbsp cornstarch’
Corn syrup Mix ¾ cup light corn syrup with ¼ cup Molasses to get Dark corn syrup.

1 cup sugar mixed with ¼ cup water when heated  becomes 1 cup  Light corn syrup.

Cream of Tartar ½ tsp CoT = ½ tsp Lemon juice
Egg Provided in a separate table below.
Egg Glaze Oil,

Milk ,



¼ cup light corn syrup + very hot water

can be applied using brush to pastries after removing them from Oven, re bake for a couple of minutes.

Fresh Cream Whisk together milk with melted butter (not clarified butter) till they blend.  You can use this in the place of Heavy cream, though it will not whip.


Collect the malai accumulated on milk everyday.  Boil a cup of milk till it reduces to half its quantity.  Cool and add to the accumulated malai and voila, you get fresh cream to be used on side dishes like Palak Paneer.

Fresh Herbs For 1 tbsp chopped fresh herbs, substitute 1 tsp dried (a ratio of 3 to 1)
Greek Yogurt Add regular (plain) yogurt to a cheesecloth-lined colander set over a bowl, cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate until thickened.
Half & Half Some of the recipes call for Half & Half.  you can substitute  3 parts of whole milk +  1 part Heavy cream in its place.
Heavy whipping cream There is no substitute for heavy cream if you are intending to whip it.  But if it is used in a different manner, for example in a sauce or batter, then you can substitute it with the following:

Evaporated milk is a good substitute for Heavy Whipping cream.


⅔ cup Whole Milk + ⅓ cup Melted Unsalted Butter  = 1 cup Heavy cream (2 parts of milk + 1 part butter)

Honey 1 ¼ cup sugar mixed with ¼ cup water can be substituted for honey.


1 cup Molasses = 1 cup Honey

Lemon Juice ¼ tsp Apple cider vinegar = 1 tsp Lemon Juice
Methi Leaves (Fresh) Add warm water to dried methi leaves (kasoori methi) till they immerse and wait for 5 minutes.. This can be used in place of fresh methi leaves.
Milk ½ cup Evaporated Milk + ½ cup Water = 1 cup Milk
Milk Powder Coconut powder can be used in place of milk powder.
Oil 1 cup oil = 1 cup applesauce.

1 cup oil = 1 cup pumpkin or squash puree

1 cup oil = ½ cup banana or ½ cup pear puree or ½ cup peach puree

Pav Bhaji Masala Add a teaspoon of garam masala powder with half a teaspoon of chaat masala powder.  This mixture can be used in place of Pav bhaji masala.
Pureed Bananas Coconut butter is a good substitute for Pureed Bananas.
Pureed Pumpkin Canned or Pureed Pumpkin can be replaced with equal amount of Coconut oil
Self-rising flour   1 cup All purpose flour + 1 ½ teaspoon Baking soda + ½ teaspoon salt.


1 cup All-purpose flour + 1 tsp Baking powder + ¼ tsp Baking soda + ½ tsp salt = 1 cup Self-rising flour.

Sour cream 1 cup full fat Greek Yogurt = 1 cup Sour Cream


1 cup Plain Yogurt

Sugar Sugar can be replaced with honey or cinnamon powder.  If you wish to substitute honey in place of sugar, then the following table will be of use.

¼ cup sugar 3 tbsp honey
⅓ cup sugar 3 tbsp honey
½ cup sugar ⅓ cup honey
1 cup sugar ¾ cup honey
2 cups suga 1 ½ cups honey


Egg substitutes:

There are many options to replace Eggs.  Let us see one by one.


Bananas and Applesauce

(They add the perfect amount of thick moisture like eggs, but they won’t help the dishes rise or turn out light and fluffy.

So, be sure that the recipe includes a bit of baking powder or baking soda to help a good rise, if not, increase the Baking powder & Baking soda by 25% ie 1 tsp can be made to  1 ¼ tsp)

Fruits are excellent egg replacers.  Say, for example, ¼ cup of mashed banana (half a banana approximately) or an apple pureed (¼ cup unsweetened applesauce = 1 egg) is equal to one egg.  So, we can add fruits accordingly.  This works best in fat-free cookies, yeast free quick breads, muffins and pancakes.   
Pureed Pumpkin ⅕ cup Pureed Pumpkin = 1 egg
Buttermilk/ Yogurt

(Yogurt needs to be used with baking powder to avoid dense bake.)

Replace the liquid in the recipe with same amount of buttermilk or thinned yogurt.  Replace Baking powder with ¼ as much Baking Soda.


¼ cup yogurt can be substituted for each egg

Tofu (Silken)

(It works well in recipes that call for a lot of eggs, such as quiches, pie fillings and creamy puddings)

¼ cup of tofu is equal to one egg.  Whip or beat the tofu before adding.  Using Low fat tofu is recommended.

(to use in baked goods, add 1 or 2 tsp of water to thin the whipped tofu)

Pureed Tofu 3 tbsp of Pureed Tofu + 2 tsp Cornstarch = 1 egg
Flax seeds

(Flaxseeds are a concentrated source of heart healthy Omega – 3 fatty acids)

Grind 1 tablespoon of flaxseed with 3 tablespoons of water in place of one egg.  Blend until the mixture is thick, creamy and egg -like.  Works best in chocolate recipes, granola bars and oatmeal cookies.
Powdered Flax seeds

(When simmered with water to form a thick mixture, it mimics the binding properties of eggs, but does not have the leavening power of eggs)

If using powdered flax seeds, gel well 2 ½ tbsp of powdered flax seed to 3 tbsp of water.
Easy replacer Beat together 2 tbsp flour + ½ tbsp oil + ½ tsp Baking powder + 2 tbsp any liquid till smooth.  The liquid can be any kind of milk.
Ready to make replacer 2 tbsp water + 1 tbsp oil + ½ tsp Baking powder beaten till smooth is equal to 1 egg.
Store bought egg replacer This is readymade Egg replacer available in stores.  1 ½ tsp of Ener-G + 2 tbsp water is equal to one egg.  Mixing with warm water helps adding only 15 calories to the food.
Vinegar + Baking soda

(Vinegar mixed with plain soda too works as a decent egg replacer, but mixing Baking soda reacts with the acid in vinegar to bubble up and introduce air, which helps in baking fluffy)

1 tbsp Vinegar + 1 tsp Baking soda is equal to one egg.  Vinegar can be white distilled or apple cider.  This works well in cakes, cupcakes and quick breads.
Vinegar + Baking Powder 1 tbsp White vinegar + 1 tsp Baking powder = 1 egg
Lemon Juice Lemon juice can be replaced with vinegar above.  But double the quantity of vinegar, that is, add 2 tbsp Lemon juice + 1 tsp Baking soda for one egg.
Agar agar powder Some of the cookie recipes require for egg whites alone.  You can use agar agar powder in place of egg whites.  Whip together 1 tbsp of agar agar with 1 tbsp of water.  Chill it and whip again for better results.

If you want to substitute Agar agar for whole eggs, then mix 1 tsp agar agar with 3 tbsp water

Coconut Milk Fatty and thick coconut milk can be used to replace whipped egg yolks.
Raw Cashews Raw cashews soaked and ground to a smooth cream have very similar properto to whipped egg yolks.
Corn starch 2 tbsp cornstarch + 2 tbsp water, is equal to one egg.
Chickpea flour Mix 3 tbsp of chickpea flour + 3 tbsp water until creamy.  This is equal to one egg.  This is a binder and leavener.  Works well in cakes, muffins, cookies and pancakes.
Soy powder 1 heaped tablespoon of soy powder mixed with 2 tablespoons of water is equal to one egg.
Soy milk Powder 1 tbsp soy milk powder + 1 tbsp cornstarch + 1 tbsp water = 1 egg
Peanut butter 3 tbsp peanut butter = one egg.
Chia seeds 1 tbsp chia seed + ⅓ cup water =  one egg.  (mix and let it sit for 15 minutes before using)
Other substitutes

(In savory recipes like Vegetarian Loaf, egg can be replaced with mashed potatoes, tomato paste, Rolled oats, Cornflour, Arrowroot flour, whole-wheat flour or simple bread crumbs or even oats.  This helps in binding well.)

¼ cup mashed potatoes, applesauce, canned pumpkin or pureed prunes = 1 egg

For savory entrees such as vegetarian casserole or a loaf, use 2 to 3 tbsp bread crumbs or oats.

2 tbsp cornstarch or 2 tbsp arrowroot powder or 2 tbsp Potato starch = 1 egg.